The northern cardinal is familiar to many birders, and in fact may be one of the most recognizable birds in the world. But how much do you really know about them?
Northern Cardinal Fun Facts
- The northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) is also called the Virginia nightingale, redbird, and common cardinal.
- The brilliant red plumage and jaunty crest of the male northern cardinal is what earned these birds their name because it reminded European settlers of the red vestments and pointed hats of Catholic cardinals and other religious officials.
- The bright red of northern cardinals’ plumage comes from carotenoids in their diet. On rare occasions, vibrant yellow northern cardinals may be seen, a genetic variation called xanthochroism. White northern cardinals have also been recorded, which is another genetic variation called leucism.
- Both male and female cardinals sing, and females often sing more often and more elaborately than males. Females will sing while on the nest, which could be letting their devoted mates know it is time for a feeding.
- A flock of cardinals is called a college, conclave, Vatican, or radiance, and these bright birds often flock in winter when they gather at the best food sources.
- These birds occasionally go bald, typically as part of their natural molting cycle. It can be startling to see a bald cardinal, however, as their dark gray-black skin is a stark contrast to the remaining red body feathers, and they can look like miniature vultures. The feathers will quickly regrow, however, including the characteristic crest.
- Northern cardinals are called “northern” because they have the northernmost range of all the cardinal species, most of which remain in tropical areas in Central and South America. In recent years, the changing climate and the availability of supplemental food sources in winter has encouraged these birds to venture even further north.
- The northern cardinal is the official state bird of seven states – Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, North Carolina, Ohio, Virginia, and West Virginia. This is more than any other bird species.
- Because these birds do not migrate and their brilliant feathers stand out in a snowy landscape, they’re a winter favorite for birders and non-birders alike. Northern cardinals have been part of holiday decorations for generations, and are featured on everything from holiday cards and ornaments to cookie tins, gift wrap, candle holders, throw pillows, wreaths, welcome mats, and more.
Adding the Northern Cardinal to Your Life List
This bird is an easy one for birders to find, not only because of its highly visible plumage, but also because it easily comes to feeders. Nature centers and wildlife refuges within the northern cardinal’s range are likely to have feeding stations that regularly attract these birds, and they’re also found in gardens, parks, and woodlands. Listening for their high-pitched call is a good way to know northern cardinals are nearby, and watching higher in the canopy and thickets can give birders a good look at their colorful plumage.
Learn More About Northern Cardinals
There’s plenty more to learn about these colorful birds, starting with…
- Cornell Lab of Ornithology: Thorough profile of the northern cardinal
- BirdLife International: Detailed, interactive range map
- Xeno-Canto: 465+ recordings of northern cardinal calls and songs
- Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center: Extensive northern cardinal photo gallery
- YouTube: Informative mini-documentary with extra trivia and video
- The Spruce: Detailed tips for attracting and feeding northern cardinals